Share on Facebook Employees bring their own backgrounds to the workplace, where they must learn the rules for expected behavior.
The hierarchical arrangement suggests that the five levels of needs are arranged in order of increasing importance, starting with physiological needs.
According to the theory, when needs at one level are satisfied, they are no longer motivators and the individual "moves up" the hierarchy to satisfy needs at the next level. Maslow's view of motivation provides a logical framework for categorizing needs, but it does not supply a complete picture.
Existence needs are satisfied by food and water pay fringe benefits and working conditions.
Relatedness needs are satisfied by relationships with co workers, superiors family and friends. Growth needs cover the need to advance and develop. As with Maslow's theory, assumes that motivated behavior follows a hierarchy, but it has two important differences: ERG theory suggests that more than one level of needs can cause motivation at the same time; ERG theory has a frustration-regression element that suggests that if needs remain unsatisfied at some high level, the individual will become frustrated, regress to a lower level, and begin to pursue lower-level needs again.
The dual-structure approach was developed by Frederick Herzberg and is often referred to as the two-factor theory. Herzberg's studies of accountants and engineers led him to suggest that entirely different sets of factors are associated with satisfaction and with dissatisfaction.
Motivation factors, relating to the job itself, result in feelings ranging from satisfaction to no satisfaction.
Hygiene factors, relating to the work environment, result in feelings ranging from dissatisfaction to no dissatisfaction. Other need-based perspectives on motivation focus on acquired needs: This approach is concerned not about the ordering of needs but rather about the needs themselves.
David McCleland first identified the need for achievement, which reflects an individual's desire to do something more effectively than in the past. The need for power is the desire to be influential in a group and to control one's environment.
These approaches to motivation are concerned with how motivation takes place. They focus on why people choose certain behavioral options to fulfil their needs and how they evaluate their satisfaction after they have attained their goals. Two useful process-based approaches are expectancy theory and equity theory.
Expectancy theory suggests that motivation is based on how much we want something and how likely we think we are to get it. The formal framework of expectancy theory was developed by Victor Vroom.
This framework states basically that motivation plus effort leads to performance, which then leads to outcomes. According to this theory, three conditions must be met for individuals to exhibit motivated behavior: Effort-to-performance expectancy is the individual's perception of the probability that effort will lead to high performance.
This expectancy ranges from 0 to 1, with 1 being a strong belief that effort will lead to high performance. Performance-to-outcome expectancy is the individual's perception that performance will lead to a specific outcome.
This expectancy ranges from 0 to 1. A high performance-to-outcome expectancy would be 1 or close to it.
Outcomes are consequences of behavior. An individual may experience a variety of outcomes in an organizational setting. Each outcome has an associated valance, which is an index of how much an individual desires a particular outcome.
An outcome that an individual wants has a positive valance. An outcome that the individual does not want has a negative valance.
When the individual is indifferent to the outcome, the valance is zero. Porter and Lawler extended the basic expectancy model by suggesting that high performance may cause high satisfaction.
When performance results in various extrinsic and intrinsic rewards, the individual evaluates the equity of these various rewards relative to the effort expended and the level of performance attained. The individual is satisfied if the rewards relative to the effort expended and the level of performance attained.
The individual is satisfied if the rewards are felt to be fair. Nadler and Lawler suggest how managers can apply the basic ideas of expectancy theory. Managers should first determine the outcomes each employee is likely to want.
Then they should decide what kinds and levels of performance are needed to meet organizational goals, making sure that the desired levels of performance are attainable.Organizational behavior studies have become more important today than in previous years because corporations must learn to adapt to the rapidly changing business cultures that have stemmed from a competitive and fast-paced market.
Importance of Organizational Behavior Organizational behavior is the study and application of knowledge about how individuals and groups act within an organization. Its purpose is to build better relationships, by achieving human. Psychology is the study of people's behavior, performance, and mental operations.
It also refers to the application of the knowledge, which can be used to understand events, treat mental health issues, and improve education, employment, and relationships. Organizational leadership requires developing an understanding of your own worldview as well as the worldviews of others.
Worldview is a composite image created from the various lenses through which individuals view the world. Organizational culture an important part of change management All change in organizations is challenging, but perhaps the most daunting is changing culture.
There are at least two reasons for this. Organizational behavior investigates the impacts that groups and individuals have on behavior in an organization.
The subject includes sociology, psychology, and communication s.