Risk and Exploration Revisited In the second essay in this series I wrote about the problem of balancing risk and exploration.
Indeed, his speech would mark the beginning of a bold new era for humanity; an era of exploration and innovation in outer space.
The United States was rapidly losing the race into space, and in turn a competition in technological supremacy and prestige, to its Cold War adversary. In it, I endeavor to point out the elements which allow this speech to still resonate strongly over 60 years past its delivery.
He begins by addressing the various distinguished guests and members of the audience to whom he is making his speech. He continues by expressing his gratitude for the opportunity he has been given to speak, and touches upon the prominence of Rice University as a center of learning and knowledge.
Such an introduction is merely a formality, yet it establishes a significant rapport between the audience and himself. By immediately establishing such a connection, Kennedy has made the audience more susceptible to agreeing with the content with will follow.
Though Kennedy does not expressly delineate the main points or thesis of his speech in this introduction, he neverless braces the audience for what is to come.
Indeed, for the purpose of this speech, such a choice was perhaps for the best; it allows the build up to and ultimate culmination of his thesis to be much more exciting and unexpected, and therefore more profound. The first point Kennedy addresses in the body of his speech is the breakneck pace at which technology, knowledge, and discovery has evolved.
He demonstrated to them that they were living at a time of rapid development, rapid change, and rapid advancement. Kennedy undoubtedly recognized that he was speaking to an audience of scientists, engineers, and students, who understood the profundity of such breakneck advancement.
By opening the body of his speech with this point, Kennedy is preparing the audience for the bold ambitions he will soon declare.
Change is happening and change is happening fast; it is inevitable that man will reach for the stars. If the United States does not lead the adventure into space, it will, according to Kennedy, fail to see realized the ideals which we uphold as a nation.
The United States was locked in an intense struggle, not only of geopolitics but of ideology. American freedom and liberty was being threatened by the Soviet Union.
Kennedy rightly recognized that no American living at the time could disagree with the premise that American liberty would be secured through supremacy over the Soviet Union.
As such, his connection of the American efforts in space, and the need for American leadership in space, with the ideological struggle the United States was engaged in, strongly supports his coming points.
If we must land on the Moon in order to preserve a peaceful and free world, then landing on the Moon is an absolutely necessity. Such an ideological framing, especially in the Cold War context, circumvented and delegitimized any criticisms against American space exploration.
Space exploration is hard and costly. In face of all this, perhaps the challenge is too insurmountable, too dangerous to pursue. Why fly the Atlantic? Yet this is not just a claim, this is a challenge. Kennedy is challenging his audience and the American public to rise to the occasion, to demonstrate the best of their skills, and to reinforce American leadership as an innovative power.
The American spirit, the premise of what makes us American, is our ability to boldly accept challenges and rise to conquer them.
Kennedy is thus framing this challenge around the American character; if we as a nation cannot achieve what we are known for achieving, then has become of us?
Again, in the Cold War context, such a challenge was strongly appealing. Failure to reach the Moon would not just be a failure in technological or scientific terms, it would be a failure on the part of the American people, American spirit, and the premise of the United States of America.
Such a challenge, indeed, still resonates to this very day. Having gone through a buildup which demonstrated to his audience the political, scientific, and ideological importance of space exploration and reaching his thesis on the necessity of a moon landing, Kennedy finally addresses his last point.
He spends the latter part of his speech discussing the steps the United States and his administration have already taken to achieve that ultimate goal. He points out the facilities that have opened to support an effort in space exploration, the Saturn rockets which are currently being developed and, coincidently, which would eventually take American astronauts to the moonthe satellites which America has already put into orbit, and the plethora of high-paying and high-skill jobs which the space industry has already created.
Kennedy, it seems, goes through the effort to describe all this for two main reasons. The first is to win further support for his ambitious goal; what validity would a landing on the moon before the decade is out have if nothing had already been taken to support such a goal?
By demonstrating to the public that steps are already being taken, they are more likely to support the continuation of such an effort. The second main purpose of this effort is revealed in the statements he continues with, that the exploration of space is going to be a costly and dangerous effort.
He states that the American budget for space is going to increase dramatically, and, as such, the average American is going to need to pay more and more for space exploration efforts.
As we are quite familiar with in our contemporary political environment, telling people that they will be giving more to the state through taxes, especially for something that does not directly and tangibly impact their daily lives, is an unpopular action.
Thus, Kennedy needed to demonstrate to the public where that money was going to, and show that, it was supporting the creation of high-skill jobs and space technology capable of supporting security and weather monitoring activity on Earth. As such, we see Kennedy being the archetypical politician in the part of his speech; he tells the American public that they will need to pay more in taxes, but that paying those taxes will ultimately be in their interest.
Having completed the body of his speech, Kennedy thus begins his concluding remarks. He finally concludes by recalling the statement of British explorer George Mallory, who climbed Mount Everest.
And, as such, conquering the challenge of landing on the moon is part of the American spirit.People have always been fascinated by space exploration and it was during the ’s that the “race to space” took off. Both Russia and the United States wanted to be the first to travel into space and the first ones to land on the moon.
During the meeting Jack Stuster, author of Bold Endeavors: Lessons from Polar and Space Exploration, quoted Norwegian scientist and explorer Fridtjof Nansen as saying "The history of the human race is a continual struggle from darkness toward light. It is therefore to no . Jul 05, · Space exploration is a huge part of American history, from July 20, when Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin landed on the moon and won the “space race," all the way up to the Mars Rover programs.
Yet, there are many opinions about whether space exploration is alphabetnyc.coms: The overall tone is set to excite the scientists for the scientific implications of space exploration, excite the American public for the great adventure that lay ahead, and excite the politicians who must legislate for space exploration by the geopolitical and ideological implications of such an endeavor.
Sep 06, · The Outer Space Treaty has guided global exploration and use of outer space since Trump's 'Space Force' may not be a good fit. Jul 05, · Space exploration is a huge part of American history, from July 20, when Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin landed on the moon and won the “space Reviews:
Jul 10, · Firstly, the author notes that the "Space Race" brought about numerous technological advances that provided economic and humanitarian benefits. This is a presumptuous argument that does not have any backing evidence. The overall tone is set to excite the scientists for the scientific implications of space exploration, excite the American public for the great adventure that lay ahead, and excite the politicians who must legislate for space exploration by the geopolitical and ideological implications of such an endeavor. During the meeting Jack Stuster, author of Bold Endeavors: Lessons from Polar and Space Exploration, quoted Norwegian scientist and explorer Fridtjof Nansen as saying "The history of the human race is a continual struggle from darkness toward light. It is therefore to no .