This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Currently, because of their prevalence WMSNs are used in different applications.
The performance of QoS routing depends upon the selection of an optimal path or paths. Path selection is based on evaluation of a cost function using various routing metrics.
A careful blend of such metrics in a routing cost function guarantees a committed level of QoS. This survey uses number of routing metrics as criteria for categorizing state-of-the-art QoS WMSNs routing techniques.
In addition, open issues and future research directions to further develop efficient routing protocols to guarantee QoS are discussed. Advances in digital electronics, MEMS technology, and radio communication have facilitated the design and development of physically small, low-cost, multifunctional, low-power smart sensor nodes.
A WSN consists of a large number of randomly and densely deployed sensor nodes that can interact with one another and with the surrounding environment to sense, measure, and control scalar physical parameters of interest.
Growing interest in WSNs has already facilitated a wide range of applications including habitat monitoring, military, environmental control, logistics support, human-centric applications, industrial control, and disaster relief [ 2 — 4 ].
Over the past few years, progress in Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor CMOS technology has facilitated the development of low-cost, physically small smart sensors to sense multimedia data [ 5 ].
This development gave rise to a new type of network called a Wireless Multimedia Sensor Network WMSNwhich is composed of smart sensor nodes that collect and route multimedia streams, still images, and scalar sensor data in real-time and nonreal time.
In recent years, many applications based on WMSNs have been developed for surveillance, advanced health care, smart homes, and environmental and industrial monitoring [ 67 ].
Although WMSNs evolved from WSNs, the former can be differentiated from their predecessor in terms of greater energy consumption, stringent real-time performance, high bandwidth requirement, high packet loss rate, and more processing capability.
In WMSNs, a large amount of data is generated. Handling multimedia data with limited available resources and guaranteeing the variable Quality of Service QoS are difficult tasks to achieve. In WMSNs, routing is a fundamental mechanism that offers a QoS guarantee for multimedia traffic; this need has been an active area of research for the past few years.
Metric based path selection and management of routing metrics are two most important concerns of the routing scheme. Appropriate selection of routing metrics with proper grouping and mathematical properties of the path-weight calculation cost function is a prerequisite for satisfying the routing requirements of network traffic [ 589 ].
Optimal links, or optimal paths, are characterized by the perfect fusion of a number of routing metrics with the help of a cost function.
Optimal functioning of all existing routing protocols directly depends upon the proper combination of different routing metrics. An odd combination of these metrics may result in the degradation of routing performance; for example, permutation of any arbitrary routing metrics in a routing protocol may lead to failure and creation of routing loops, resulting in suboptimal paths [ 8 ].Currently, because of their prevalence WMSNs are used in different applications.
Due to the unique features of WMSNs, fulfilling Quality of Service (QoS) requirements for a variety of applications is the challenge. QoS routing is a backbone of WMSNs and plays a vital role in satisfying QoS requirements. A survey on routing protocols for wireless sensor networks Kemal Akkaya *, Mohamed Younis Department of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering, University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD , USA.
qos aware routing protocols for wmsn The network layer is an important layer to provide QoS for multimedia application because it is responsible for providing energy e cient path that meets QoS requirements.. Journal of Computer Networks and Communications is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research and review articles, investigating both theoretical and practical aspects of computer networks and communications.
Survey of QoS Routing Protocols for WMSNs. QoS routing is a backbone of WMSNs and plays a vital role in satisfying QoS requirements. The performance of QoS routing depends .
In recent years a number of QoS routing protocols with distinguishing features have been proposed. This paper presents a survey of some of these protocols which include a thorough overview of QoS routing metrics, resources and factors affecting the performance.
The protocols are classified according to the multi-path, cross layer, stability, bandwidth reservation, load balancing and power efficiency based .